[[::Nuclear Companies|English]] • [[::Nuclear Companies/cz|Czech]] • [[::Nuclear Companies/fi|Finnish]] • [[::Nuclear Companies/fr|French]] • [[::Nuclear Companies/de|German]] • [[::Nuclear Companies/li|Lithuanian]] • [[::Nuclear Companies/ru|Russian]]
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This page provides an overview of some main nuclear companies operating worldwide and of the countries associated with their operations. These information may help international Anti-nuclear network activities to cooperate in resisting nuclear power.
Atomic Energy of Canada Limited or AECL is a Canadian federal Crown corporation with the responsibility of managing Canada's national nuclear energy research and development program, including the advancement and support of CANDU reactor technology which was developed at AECL starting in the 1950s. AECL also provides a variety of maintenance, diagnostic, waste management, refurbishment, and other services to the nuclear industry.
- is the constructor of the Canadian NPPs
- close partner of TEPCO
- is operator of Uranium mines McClean Lake (Areva Resources, formerly Cogema Resources) in Canada
- is building an EPR reactor in Olkiluoto (Finland)
- is stakeholder of the Uranium mine McArthur River in Canada (30,2%)
- is stakeholder of the Uranium mill Key Lake in Canada (17%)
- is operator of the new Uranium mine Midwest in Canada
- is stakeholder of the new Uranium mine Cigar Lake in Canada (37%)
- is stakeholder of the new Uranium mine Dawn Lake in Canada (23%)
- wants to build new reactors in Ontario, Canada
- offered to build an EPR in Alberta, Canada
- transactions in Tchad
- is operating uranium mines in Niger
- Short film showing radioactive contamination of the public by Areva in Niger - Greenpeace reports that high radiation levels have been found on the streets of Akokan in Niger due to its proximity to uranium mines owned by Areva.
- Webpage about Areva's uranium activities in Niger French
- wants to start uranium mining in Finland - update: Areva sold their claims to Mawson, but took over a relevant share of Mawson at the same time
- wants to start a uranium mine in Namibia
- is financed by bank loans by:
- Société Générale (F): 433.5 million €
- HSBC (UK): 433.5 million €
- Crédit Agricole (F): 339.9 million €
- Citi (USA): 343.6 million €
- BNP Paribas (F): 313.5 million €
- BBVA (E): 264.8 million €
- Natixis (F): 219.9 million €
- RBC (CA): 183.6 million €
- Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ (J): 179.9 million €
- JP Morgan Chase (USA): 134.9 million €
- UniCredit Group (I): 134.9 million €
- Nordea (S): 104.9 million €
- RBS (UK): 104.9 million €
- Santander (E): 104.9 million €
- Bank of America (USA): 105 million €
- Barclays (UK): 100 million €
- Deutsche Bank (D): 44.9 million €
- ING Group (NL): 44.9 million €
- Westpac (AUS): 40 million €
The practices of Areva
Areva and the previous companies that were merged sooner or later in COGEMA/Areva have exploited over 200 mines in France. Just take the view in the West of Brittany. You can verify on the official MIMAUSA register that for those 10 mines, 3 of them have no information about when they were used, some kind of information which should be easy to remember. But antinuclear activists have to use Geiger counters to find the former mines and the contaminated soils, see the short report made by the French TV if you can understand French:
- http://programmes.france3.fr/pieces-a-conviction/51415247-fr.php (long report made by France 3 on former uranium mines)
On the former mine of l’Esparpière, the tails are covered by a thin film of plastic (about 1 mm), covered by 30 cm of earth. Remember: this is the show room for Areva, in Niger (far from the eyes of the TV), no soil and no plastic film prevent the wind from blowing the contaminated tails. But even in the show room, who will remember in a few centuries (or even decades) that no tree should grow on the tails, preventing from the early destruction of the supposed protection?
Bruce Power Limited Partnership is a Canadian business partnership composed of several corporations. It exists as a partnership between Cameco Corporation (31.6%), TransCanada Corporation (31.6%), BPC Generation Infrastructure Trust (31.6%), the Power Workers Union (4%) and The Society of Energy Professionals (1.2%) . It is the licensed operator of the Bruce Nuclear Generating Station, located on the shores of Lake Huron, roughly 250 kilometres northwest of Toronto, between the towns of Kincardine and Saugeen Shores.
- operates a number of NPPs in Canada
- wants to build and operate a new reactor in Alberta/CA (as successor of Energy Alberta)
Cameco Corporation is the world's largest publicly traded uranium company, based in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. In 2008, it was the world's second largest uranium producer, accounting for 15% of world production.
- operates a number of uranium mines in Canada
EnBW Kraftwerke AG
- operator and owner of several NPPs in Germany: Philippsburg-1 (1979 - 890 MW), Philippsburg-2 (1984 - 1,392 MW), Neckarwestheim-I (1976 - 785 MW; operator: EnBW Kernkraft GmbH, owner: 70 % Neckarwerke Stuttgart AG (is part of EnBW), 18.18 % Deutsche Bahn AG, 9.09 % EnBW Kraftwerke, and others), Neckarwestheim-II (1989 - 1,310 MW, operator: Gemeinschaftskernkraftwerk Neckar GmbH (is part of EnBW), owner: EnBW Kraftwerke AG)
Energy Alberta Corporation was created in 2005 to provide nuclear power to the energy-intensive development of the oil sands resources in northern Alberta. The company was founded by Hank Swartout, CEO of Precision Drilling Corporation, and Wayne Henuset, co-owner of Willow Park Wines and Spirits in Calgary, Alberta. In 2007 Energy Alberta was acquired by Bruce Power of Ontario. Bruce decided to relocate the site to Whitemud.
- wants to build and operate a new reactor in Alberta/CA
- is operator of several NPPs in Germany: Brokdorf (1986 - 1,410 MW; 80 % EON, 20 % Vattenfall), Grafenrheinfeld (1981 - 1,275 MW; operator + owner: E.ON Kernkraft), Grohnde (1984 - 1,360 MW; operator: Gemeinschaftskernkraftswerk Grohnde GmbH, owner: 83.3 % E.ON Kernkraft, 17.7 % Stadtwerke Bielefeld), Isar-I/Ohu (shut down), Isar-II/Ohu (1988 - 1,400 MW; operator: E.ON Kernkraft GmbH, owner: 80 % E.ON Kernkraft, 25 % Stadtwerke München), Unterweser-Esenshamm (1978 - 1,345 MW; operator + owner: E.ON Kernkraft GmbH) (shut down)
- is stakeholder of several NPPs in Germany: Brunsbüttel (1976 - 771 MW; owner + operator: Kernkraftwerk Brunsbüttel GmbH & Co. OHG - 33.3 % E.ON Kernkraft, 66.7 % Vattenfall Europe Nuclear Energy GmbH), Emsland/Lingen (1988 - 1,329 MW; operator: Kernkraftwerke Lippe-Ems GmbH, owner: 87.5 % RWE Power, 33.3 % E.ON Kernkraft), Gundremmingen-B (1984 - 1,284 MW; operator: Kernkraftwerke Gundremmingen Betriebsgesellschaft mbH, owner: 75 % RWE Power, 25 % E.ON Kernkraft), Gundremmingen-C (1984 - 1,288 MW; operator: Kernkraftwerke Gundremmingen Betriebsgesellschaft mbH, owner: 75 % RWE Power, 25 % E.ON Kernkraft), Isar-I/Ohu (1977 - 878 MW; operator + owner: E.ON Kernkraft GmbH), Krümmel (1983 - 1,346 MW; operator: Kernkraftwerk Krümmel GmbH & Co OHG, owner: 50 % E.ON Kernkraft, 50 % Vattenfall Europe Nuclear Energy GmbH)
- is stakeholder of several other atomic facilities in Germany: GNS - Gesellschaft für Nuklearservice (Society for Nuclear Service), interim repository Ahaus, interim repository Gorleben, Uranium enrichment facility Gronau, and via GNS also stakeholder of the DBE - Deutsche Gesellschaft zum Bau und Betrieb von Endlagern mbH (mining for a final disposal site in Gorleben)
- wanted to build a new reactor in Finland (formerly main stakeholder of Fennovoima)
- wants to build a new reactor in the UK (together with RWE)
Entsorgungswerk für Nuklearanlagen (EWN), formerly Energiewerke Nord GmbH is a company specializing in the dismantling of phased-out NPPs. It is owned by the German Federal Ministry of Finance.
The company's projects are:
- deconstruction of the former GDR reactors in Rheinsberg and Greifswald
- deconstruction of the nuclear reprocessing plant WAK in Karlsruhe
- disassembly of reactor parts of nuclear submarines in Murmansk, Russia
- deconstruction of the AVR Jülich research reactor
- conditioning of nuclear waste at the ZAW (Zentrale aktive Werkstatt)
- storage of nuclear waste in the ZLN on the grounds of the former NPP Greifswald
- name means "Scandinavian power"
- main stakeholder formerly was the German company E.ON; they decided in October 2012 to leave the project, in February 2013 they announced to have handed over their shares to Voimaosakeyhtiö
- smaller stakeholders, e.g.: Ruukki (2 %) steel factory in Raahe
- wants to build a new nuclear power station in Pyhäjoki/Finland - possible other location was Simo (both close to the city of Oulu); October 5, 2011 Fennovoima announced their selection of Pyhäjoki for the NPP site
- Voimaosakeyhtiö SF: 100 % (formerly: 66 %)
- 45 %
Boliden Harjavalta Oy: 1 %
- Boliden Kokkola Oy: 7 % (shares to be reduced)
- Kesko Oyj: 4 %
- Outokumpu Oyj: 14 %
- Ovako Bar Oy Ab: 2 %
- Rautaruukki Oyj: 4 %
S-ryhmä: 5 %
- Majakka Voima Oy: 9 %
- 55 %
Kuopion Energia Oy: 2 %
- Lahti Energia Oy: 4 %
- Rauman Energia Oy: 5 %
- Oy Turku Energia Ab: 3 %
- Vantaan Energia Oy: 5 %
- Katternö Kärnkraft Oy Ab: 10 % (shares to be reduced)
- Esse Elektro-Kraft Ab
- Oy Herrfors Ab
- Koillis-Satakunnan Sähkö Oy
- Kruunupyyn Sähkölaitos
- Lammaisten Energia Oy
- Naantalin Energia Oy
- Pietarsaaren Energialaitos
- Talvivaaran Kaivososakeyhtiö Oyj
- Tammisaaren Energia
- Uudenkaarlepyyn Voimalaitos
- Valkeakosken Energia Oy
- Vetelin Sähkölaitos Oy
- Suomen Voima Oy: 13 %
- Etelä-Savon Energia Oy
- Haminan Energia Oy
- Keravan Energia Oy
- Kokemäen Sähkö Oy
- KSS Energia Oy
- Köyliön-Säkylän Sähkö Oy
Lankosken Sähkö Oy Leppäkosken Sähkö Oy
- Mäntsälän Sähkö Oy
- Nurmijärven Sähkö Oy
- Paneliankosken Voima Oy
- Porvoon Energia Oy
- Sallila Energia Oy
- Vatajankosken Sähkö Oy
- Vakka-Suomen Voima Oy
- Kaakon Energia Oy: 4 %
- Imatran Seudun Sähkö Oy
- Parikkalan Valo Oy
Outokummun Energia Oy
- Pohjois-Suomen Voima Oy: 3 %
- Haukiputaan Sähköosuuskunta
- Itä-Lapin Energia Oy
- Kemin Energia Oy
- Keminmaan Energia Oy
- Kotkan Energia Oy
- Keskusosuuskunta Oulun Seudun Sähkö
- Raahen Energia Oy
- Rantakairan Sähkö Oy
- Rovakairan Tuotanto Oy
- Tornion Energia Oy
- Voimajunkkarit Oy: 5 %
- Alajärvan Sähkö Oy
- Hiirikosken Energia Oy
- Jylhän Sähköosuuskunta
- Kuoreveden Sähkö Oy
- Lehtimäen SähköOy
- Seinäjoen Energia Oy
- Vimpelin Voima Oy
- Ääneseudun Energia Oy
- 45 %
- E.ON Kärnkraft Finland Ab: 0 % (decided in October 2012 to sell their 34 % shares) - Rusatom Overseas was announced on July 3, 2013 to be in negotiations to take over these shares
Shareholders already left before:
- Ålands Elandelslag
- Jyväskylä Energia
The shares have been transferred to Talvivaara which has increased its share in the project at the same time.
Voimaosakeyhtiö SF profile
source: http://www.voimaosakeyhtio.fi/en/tietoa.php as of August 9, 2013 "A group of Finnish companies had until now been left outside of the ownership of the reasonable priced nuclear energy. These companies founded Voimaosakeyhtiö SF in 2006. Next year Fennovoima's nuclear power plant project was started. In 2011 Fennovoima decided that its nuclear power plant will be built to Pyhäjoki.
The owners founded Voimaosakeyhtiö SF in order to get their own reasonable priced electricity production and through this the possibility to equal operational preconditions with the industry and electricity companies that own nuclear power already.
Voimaosakeyhtiö SF operates like a co-operative. All shareholders will get the electricity generated by Fennovoima's future nuclear power plant at cost price in proportion to their ownership.
The company's line of business
The line of business of the company is to deliver energy to its shareholders and other activities related to this. The company owns shares of the Limited Company Fennovoima and may also own shares of other companies whose line of business is production, transmission and delivery of electricity and other forms of energy.
Board of Directors
Chairman of the Board is Antti Koskelainen. Board members are Toni Hemminki, Jarmo Herronen, Pertti Laukkanen, Jussi Lehto, Pekka Rantanen, Pekka Perä and Stefan Storholm.
Deputy members are Marko Haapala and Risto Vaittinen.
Pekka Ottavainen acts as the CEO of Voimaosakeyhtiö SF.
Business ID 2069398-3
This chapter is copied from Voimaosakeyhtiö SF website. It contains a brief presentation of all 67 Voimaosakeyhtiö SF shareholders. They are given in alphabetical order. If the holding entitling to electricity at cost price is fully owned by a subsidiary of a shareholder, the name of the subsidiary is given parentheses after the name of the parent company.
Oy Aga Ab produces and markets industrial and special gases and related technology and services. In the production of industrial gases, electricity is used for cooling and compression and for running various pumps and blowers. The company's net sales in 2007 totaled EUR 170 million. AGA belongs to The Linde Group, the leading gas supplier in the world. AGA employs some 400 people in Finland.
Alajärven Sähkö Oy is engaged in the retail sale and transmission of electricity and is owned by its customers.
Boliden Harjavalta Oy belongs to the Boliden Group of Sweden. Based in Harjavalta, the company engages in copper processing and nickel concentrate smelting and also manufactures copper cathodes in Pori. The industry is highly energy intensive; the company needs electricity for melting copper and for electrolytic copper production. The company's net sales in 2007 totaled EUR 140 million, and personnel numbered just over 400.
Boliden Kokkola Oy is the second largest zinc plant in Europe and the fourth largest in the world. Boliden Kokkola belongs to the Boliden Group. Zinc production is highly energy intensive despite the fact that the plant has an efficient and environmentally friendly production process. The electrolytic stage in particular consumes much electricity. Boliden Kokkola is the largest private sector employer in the town of Kokkola, with a personnel of about 600. The company's net sales in 2007 totaled approximately EUR 270 million.
Componenta plc is an international metal industry group listed on the Helsinki Stock Exchange. Componenta manufactures metal industry components and assemblies. Component manufacture requires a great deal of energy due to the properties of iron and aluminum; working iron requires a temperature of more than 1,500 degrees Celsius. The company's net sales in 2007 totaled approximately EUR 640 million. Componenta has some 5,100 employees, about one fifth of which are employed in Finland. Its headquarters and most of its production units are located in Finland.
Esse Elektro Kraft Ab is a privately owned company engaged in producing, transmitting and selling energy in South Ostrobothnia.
Etelä-Savon Energia Oy is an energy company owned by the City of Mikkeli and engaged in producing, transmitting and selling electricity and district heating in the Mikkeli area; it also sells electricity nationwide.
Finnfoam Oy is a Finnish family business that manufactures heat insulation. The company's net sales in 2007 totaled approximately EUR 50 million. The company employs about 40 people.
Haminan Energia Oy is an energy company owned by the City of Hamina engaging in the maintenance and operation of electricity, natural gas, district heating and telecommunications networks and in producing electricity, district heating and energy solutions.
Haukiputaan Sähköosuuskunta has concentrated in serving electricity users in Haukiputaa and Kello. There are about 6,000 members. Oulun Sähkönmyynti Oy is the responsible electricity seller in the area, and Haukiputaan Sähköosuuskunta has 6.33 % of it.
Oy Herrfors Ab produces, sells and distributes electricity and district heating to customers in Maksamaa, Oravainen, Teerijärvi, Ylivieska, Alavieska and part of Pedersöre. Herrfors belongs to the Katternö Group owned by energy companies in Central Ostrobothnia.
Imatran Seudun Sähkö Oy is an electricity production, distribution and sales company in the Imatra area, owned principally by its household and corporate customers and municipalities in the area.
Itä-Lapin Energia Oy is a company owned by the City of Kemijärvi and the Municipalities of Salla, Pelkosenniemi and Savukoski engaging in the administration of shares in electricity production. It is a subsidiary of Koillis-Lapin Sähkö Oy.
Jylhän Sähköosuuskunta is an electricity cooperative in Kauhava engaging in the production, sales and transmission of electricity. The cooperative is owned by 1,100 private individuals in Kauhava.
Kemin Energia Oy is a company owned by the City of Kemi whose services include electricity transmission and district heating sales.
Keminmaan Energia Oy is an energy company owned by Keminmaa municipality. Its field of activity covers distributing electricity as well as producing and distributing district heating.
Keravan Energia Oy is an energy company owned by the City of Kerava and the Municipality of Sipoo. It is principally engaged in electricity and district heating production and distribution.
Kesko plc (Kestra Kiinteistöpalvelut Oy) is a retail trade conglomerate operating in the Baltic Sea area, with net sales totaling EUR 8.8 billion in 2010. In Finland, Kesko and K shopkeepers employ some 45,000 people. Kesko is active in the food, hardware, department store, agricultural and machinery retail trade. Kesko is a major consumer of electricity, accounting for about 1% of Finland's total electricity consumption. The company's energy needs stem from the maintenance of properties and the operating of cold storage equipment.
Koillis-Satakunnan Sähkö Oy sells and distributes electricity in an area at the junction of South Ostrobothnia, Central Finland and the Tampere Region. It is municipally owned by the municipalities of Virrat, Ähtäri, Alavus, Töysä, Keuruu ja Kihniö.
Kokemäen Sähkö Oy is a company in Kokemäki engaging in electricity sales and distribution.
Kotkan Energia Oy is an energy company wholly owned by the City of Kotka; its main products are district heating, electricity and industrial steam. Kotkan Energia also sells natural gas to industry.
Kruunupyyn Sähkölaitos is the electricity utility of the Municipality of Kruunupyy, procuring and distributing electricity in the Kruunupyy area.
KSS Energia Oy is an energy company owned by the City of Kouvola and engaging in the production, sales and transmission of electricity and district heating.
Kuopion Energia Oy is an energy company owned by the City of Kuopio, supplying its customers with electricity and district heating.
Kuoreveden Sähkö Oy is a local electricity company that sells and produces electricity for customers in its area and is responsible for electricity transmission.
Köyliön-Säkylän Sähkö Oy produces and sells electricity in the municipalities of Säkylä, Köyliö and Eura. The company has some 200 shareholders.
Lahti Energia Oy is an energy company owned by the City of Lahti and engaging in the procurement and distribution of electricity, district heating and natural gas to its customers.
Lammaisten Energia Oy is a mainly privately owned energy company. Its field of activity includes producing, selling and distributing electricity. The company operates in Satakunta.
Lehtimäen Sähkö Oy manages electricity distribution and sales in its network area in Lehtimäki.
Myllyn Paras Oy produces and markets flours, flakes, groats and pasta, and also frozen dough and bakery products. The family-owned company has two plants in Hyvinkää. It employs just over 100 people, and its net sales in the financial period that ended in summer 2008 totaled EUR 40 million.
Mäntsälän Sähkö Oy is a company owned by the Municipality of Mäntsälä engaging in the production, transmission and sales of electricity, district heating and natural gas in the Uusimaa region.
Nurmijärven Sähkö Oy (Nurmijärven Sähkönmyynti Oy) is a local energy company owned by the Municipality of Nurmijärvi engaging in the sales of electricity and district heating.
Naantalin Energia Oy is a local electricity company owned by the Municipality of Naantali. It distributes electricity in its network area to 5,500 customers. Altogether the company distributes 130 GWh electricity yearly. The company also sells electricity outside its field of activity, emphasizing in the close areas. The company is 100 years old in 2012.
Keskusosuuskunta Oulun Seudun Sähkö] is a central cooperative formed by twelve electricity cooperatives and three other organizations. Its purpose is to produce electricity that its member cooperatives in the Oulu area then sell to their customers.
Outokumpu plc is an international listed company that manufactures stainless steel. The manufacture of stainless steel is energy intensive even though the production facilities are modern, because smelting the raw materials in an electric arc furnace requires a lot of electricity. In Finland, Outokumpu also produces the most important additive to stainless steel, ferrochromium, and it aims to expand this production. Ferrochromium production is highly energy intensive, 30% to 35% of its production costs being accounted for by the cost of electricity. The net sales of Outokumpu plc in 2007 totaled EUR 6.9 billion, of which 95% came from outside Finland. Outokumpu employs 8,100 people worldwide, of which about one third in Finland. Its largest shareholder is the Finnish government with a holding of about 40%.
Ovako Imatra Oy Ab belongs to the Ovako Group. Ovako manufactures long special steel elements for the vehicle and mechanical engineering industries. Its main market areas are the Nordic countries and Europe. Special steel is manufactured by smelting recycled steel in electric arc furnaces. Ovako Group net sales in 2007 totaled EUR approximately 1.5 billion. Ovako has 4,300 employees.
Paneliankosken Voima Oy is a mainly privately owned company that produces, distributes and sells electricity at Panelia.
Parikkalan Valo Oy is a customer-owned company that sells and transmits electricity in and near Parikkala.
Pietarsaaren Energialaitos is an energy utility owned by the City of Pietarsaari, engaging in the distribution of electricity in Pietarsaari and neighboring municipalities and in the production of district heating in Pietarsaari.
Porvoon Energia Oy - Borgå Energi Ab is a company owned by the City of Porvoo, engaging in the production, distribution and sales of electricity, district heating and natural gas.
Raahen Energia Oy is an energy company owned by the City of Raahe. It distributes electricity network and district heating services to the people of Raahe.
Rantakairan Sähkö Oy is a company in Simo, owned by its customers, engaging in the production, distribution and sales of electricity to consumers in Simo and Kuivaniemi.
Rauman Energia Oy is an energy company owned by the City of Rauma, providing electricity and district heating services.
Rautaruukki plc supplies metal-based components, systems and assemblies for the construction and mechanical engineering industries. The company has a wide range of metal products and services. The manufacture and refining of iron and steel consume significant amounts of electricity. Rautaruukki operates in 25 countries and has about 15,000 employees, of which about 7,500 in Finland. The company's net sales in 2007 totaled EUR 3.9 billion, of which about 60% came from Finland and the other Nordic countries. The company's shares are listed. The company uses the trade name 'Ruukki'.
Rovakairan Tuotanto Oy is an electricity production company owned by the City of Rovaniemi and the Municipalities of Kittilä and Sodankylä.
Sallila Energia Oy is a privately owned energy company that procures, distributes and sells electricity in its operating area in Kanta-Häme.
Seinäjoen Energia Oy is a corporation owned by the City of Seinäjoki engaging in the production and sales of electricity and district heating.
Talvivaaran Kaivososakeyhtiö Oyj is an internationally important producer of basic medals which mainly focuses on production of nickel and zink. The Talvivaara polymetallic deposits in Sotkamo comprise one of the largest known sulphide nickel resources in Europe, sufficient to support an anticipated production for at least 46 years. Talvivaara's shares are listed on the main market of the London Stock Exchange and Nasdaq OMX Helsinki. The company is included in FTSE 250 index in London Stock Exchange.
Tammisaaren Energia is a utility owned by the City of Tammisaari engaging in the sales of electricity nationwide, the transmission of electricity in the city center of Tammisaari and the production, sales and transmission of district heating in Tammisaari and Karjaa.
Tornion Energia Oy is an energy company owned by the City of Tornio. Its core business consists of distributing electricity and district heating to its customers affordably, trustworthily and economically. The company engages distributing electricity as well as selling and distributing district heating.
Oy Turku Energia - Åbo Energi Ab is an energy corporation owned by the City of Turku; its core business consists of electricity and heating production, transmission and sales.
Uudenkaarlepyyn Voimalaitos is a utility owned by the City of Uusikaarlepyy engaging in the production and sales of electricity and heating.
Vaasan Sähkö concern is an energy corporation that distributes heat and electricity to its clients.
Vakka-Suomen Voima Oy (VSV Energiapalvelu Oy) engages in the production and sales of electricity. The majority of the company's shares are owned by private shareholders.
Valio Oy is a company owned by Finnish dairy producers engaging in the processing and marketing of mainly milk-based products. Valio's net sales total approximately EUR 1.7 billion, of which two thirds comes from Finland. The delivery of high quality products to customers requires electricity for refrigeration and for the operation of process equipment. Valio employs some 3,500 people in Finland.
Valkeakosken Energia Oy is a company owned by the City of Valkeakoski engaging in the delivery of electricity, district heating and natural gas and related services to its customers in the Valkeakoski area.
Vantaan Energia Oy produces, distributes and sells electricity, district heating and natural gas in Vantaa. Vantaan Energia is owned by the City of Vantaa (60%) and the City of Helsinki (40%).
Vatajankosken Sähkö Oy is an energy company owned by the Municipalities of Karvia and Kankaanpää engaging in the sales of electricity in northern Satakunta and district heating in Kankaanpää.
Vetelin Sähkölaitos Oy is a municipal electricity producer and distributor owned by the Municipality of Veteli.
Vimpelin Voima Oy is a mainly privately owned electricity company in the municipality of Vimpeli engaging in electricity transmission and sales and electrical contracting.
Ääneseudun Energia Oy is a company owned by the City of Äänekoski whose core business consists of electricity sales and transmission and the district heating and water business.
- owner and operator of the Finnish NPP Loviisa including a final repository for L/MAW
- Fortum is by more than 50 % owned by the state. 
- Fortum also owns:
Gemeinschaftskernkraftwerk Tullnerfeld Ges.m.b.H. (GKT) was the constructor and supposed to become operator of the failed Austrian Zwentendorf NPP. It was founded and the General Shareholders decided on March 22, 1971 to construct a 700 MW hot water reactor in Zwentendorf in Lower Austria with the contract going to Siemens. The state of Austria and its Federal States were stakeholders of this company:
- state of Austria:
- Verbund AG: 50%
- Federal States represented by their federal state energy suppliers:
- Tirol (TIWAG): 13,34%
- Lower Austria (EVN AG): 10,83%
- Steiermark (Estag): 10%
- Upper Austria (OKA): 8,3%
- Kärnten (Kelag): 3,33%
- Salzburg (Salzburger AG für Elektrizitätswirtschaft (SAFE)): 2,5%
- Vorarlberg (VKW): 1,67%
- interim repository for high level radioactive waste in Gorleben TBL-G (D)
- interim repository for low and medium level radioactive waste in Gorleben ALG (D)
- interim repository for high level radioactive waste in Ahaus TBL-A (D)
- federal state collecting facility of Lower Saxony (D)
It is shareholder of the:
- Acta Technologie GmbH, Alzenau (D) (100%)
- BLG - Brennelementlager Gorleben GmbH, Gorleben (D) (100 %)
- WTI - Wissenschaftlich-Technische Ingenieurberatung GmbH, Jülich (D) (100%)
- DBE - Deutsche Gesellschaft zum Bau und Betrieb von Endlagern für Abfallstoffe mbH, Peine (D) (75%)
- BZL - Brennelement-Zwischenlager Ahaus Gmbh, Ahaus (D) (55%)
GNS has addition sites in: Pilsen (CZ), Creys-Malville (F), Maubeuge (F)
It is the trademark owner of the Castor and CONSTOR concrete container for the transport of high level radioactive waste as well as the POLLUX container for the longterm storage of high level radioactive waste and a specific container for waste from research reactors called "GNS 16".
Electric utility that owns (Iberdrola Generación) all the 6 nuclear power plants that exists in Spain (Almaraz 52%, Ascó reactor ll 15%, Cofrentes 100%, Garoña 50%, Trillo I 50%, Vandellós II 28%) that generates 6,709 MW. The oldest is from 1971 and the newest from 1988. Iberdrola has a campaign against renewable energy producers, considers nuclear as "essential", while at the same time is using greenwashing.
- Wants to build nukes in France (in Penly) in partnership with EDF-Suez and in the United Kingdom with EDF and Scottish and Southern Energy (SSE).
- state-owned energy holding Polska Grupa Energetyczna (PGE, Polish Energy Group)
- has been appointed by the Polish government as the strategic investor for the first commercial Polish NPP
- at the end of 2009, PGE Energia Jądrowa S.A., a dedicated company within the PGE holding, was set up to "develop nuclear power generation in Poland"
- Posiva Oy was established in 1995 to manage the final disposal of spent fuel
- owned by: TVO (60 %) and Fortum (40 %)
Source: lecture of Tapio Litmanen, University of Jyväskylä :
- Posiva, nuclear waste company, suggested Olkiluoto to be a final disposal site in May 1999
- The municipal council of Eurajoki made a positive statement on the decision in principle in January 2000
- The Government made the decision in principle on the 21st of December 2000
- The Parliament ratified the decision on the 18th of May 2001
source: Greenpeace briefing: "Rosatom nuclear new build plans outside Russia", 2013-07-22
Rosatom’s role as a Russian state entity
Rosatom is currently in process of collecting the biggest international portfolio of nuclear projects based on a very aggressive strategy. The Rosatom model is based on the BOO = Build, Own, Operate concept. That means Rosatom receives a stake in a company that builds the nuclear power plant, provides technical expertise and provides the majority of financing, runs the actual building process and finally takes care of operating the nuclear power plant. In at least one case, Rosatom has also agreed to handle the disposal of spent nuclear fuel.
Rosatom is a Russian state owned corporation (Государственная корпорация) that owns the Russian nuclear power plants, nuclear weapons companies, related research institutes and the nuclear and radiation safety agencies. The subsidiary of Rosatom, Rusatom Overseas, and the Finnish company Fennovoima have signed a project development agreement in order to build a nuclear power plant in Pyhäjoki, Finland. Rusatom Overseas is also negotiating on 34 per cent ownership in Fennovoima.
Before 2007 Rosatom was known as Federal Agency on Atomic Energy, before 2004 as Ministry for Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation and before 1992 as Ministry of Nuclear Engineering and Industry of the USSR. Therefore it’s an important part of the Russian state system rather than an independent company. Rosatom is led by the ex-Prime Minister of Russia Sergey Kiriyenko.
The supervisory board of Rosatom is fully appointed by the President of Russia and currently includes the Russian Minister of Energy Aleksander Novak and the head of the Economic Security Service in FSB Yuri Yakovlev.
Rosatom owns and operates the nuclear export company Atomstroyexport (ASE). They have a number of reactor designs, the most prominent currently being VVER-1200, with various modifications such as MIR-1200 and AES-2006. AES-2006 is offered to Fennovoima to be built in Pyhäjoki.
In 2012, Rosatom hired Jukka Laaksonen, the former Director General of the Finnish nuclear regulatory agency STUK as its director for international development, negotiating his position while he was still in public office.
What is the motivation behind Rosatom’s aggressive enlargement?
The Russian nuclear investment programme is a state budget programme that is not related to the income from the nuclear assets. For that reason, projects do not necessarily have a priority producing economic profit, but are seen as strategic political assets.
There are several signals that seem to point that the Rosatom new build strategy's primary motivation may be political rather than commercial.
Case 1: Turkey. In Turkey, Rosatom is planning to build four VVER-1200 units. The estimated cost of the project is 4.8 billion euros per unit and the power output would be 1200 MWe for each. The state owned Turkish Electricity Trade and Contract Company has agreed to buy 70% of electricity with the price of 12.35 US cents per KWh. This would mean Rosatom would get its capital expenses barely compensated but would not be able to profit with the nuclear power plant while carrying all risks for budget overdraws completely.
At the same time, Rosatom’s full ownership in the project will essentially establish a Russian nuclear reactor on Turkish soil and a large presence in the developing Turkish electricity market.
Case 2: Bulgaria. After negotiating but never signing a construction contract under the Bulgarian Socialist Party government, a similar BOO set-up was proposed by Rosatom for the Belene nuclear power plant. This happened after the project’s strategic partner, the German energy company RWE left the project in 2009 because it received too little information about the role of the Russian partner Rosatom. Correspondence concerning this issue between RWE and Bulgarian state utility NEK was recently published by the Bulgarian government.
When the Socialist Party lost power to the right-wing Citizens for European Development of Bulgaria party (GERB), the new government set out policy measures to restrict Rosatom influence over the project. Russia tried to influence the situation with personal visits by the Premier Dmitry Medvedev and later President Vladimir Putin. GERB, however, demanded a full cost estimate, for which it hired HSBC. HSBC found out that the total cost of the project was a lot more than promised by Rosatom originally. This quickly led to the collapse of the whole project with a loud protest from the Russian government.
Rosatom international nuclear contracts
Belarus: Rosatom has contracts for building two VVER-1200 type reactors near Astravetz, 40 km from the Lithuanian capital Vilnius, but building hasn’t started yet. Rosatom will build, have complete ownership in and operate the units.
Finland: Rosatom has expressed preliminary interest in supplying a AES-2006 reactor for Fennovoima as well as buying a stake in the company.
Hungary: Rosatom bidding for building two VVER-1000 type reactors in Paks. Rosatom would build, own and operate the units. It is still unclear whether the Hungarian state utility MVM would play any role in the project.
Lithuania: Rosatom has recently started lobbying for a nuclear new build contract after a negative non-binding referendum for earlier Hitachi plans. However, the Lithuanian government has not been willing to invite a bid from Rosatom.
Slovakia: Rosatom is contemplating obtaining a 49 % share in the Bohunice V3 project after Czech state owned company CEZ stepped out leaving Slovakian state owned JAVYS alone in the project.
Turkey: Rosatom is building two VVER-1200 reactors in Akkuyu with an option for two more. Rosatom builds, owns, operates and handles waste disposal for the units.
Outside Europe, Rosatom is currently in talks with at least Argentina, Armenia, Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Iran, Jordan, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa and Vietnam. At least the Jordan and South Africa contracts would be based on the build, own, operate model.
In addition to the foreign new build projects, Rosatom has several domestic projects that clearly aim at enforcing the Russian energy dependency in Europe.
Rosatom currently builds two VVER-1200 type reactors near Neman in the Kaliningrad enclave, which is completely surrounded by the EU. The enclave itself does not need more electricity, but together with its planned Belarusian Astravetz nuclear power station, Rosatom hopes to flood the Baltic States with its electricity (enforced by the BRELL network agreement) and at the same time export large quantities to Poland and Germany (over a planned 1000 MW link).
Another Greenpeace document on Rosatom: Rosatom risks
"Rusatom Overseas, a subsidiary of the State Atomic Energy Corporation ROSATOM, was founded in 2011 with the aim of promoting Russian nuclear technology on the global market. Rusatom Overseas acts as an integrator of ROSATOM's complex solutions in nuclear energy, manages the promotion of the integrated offer and the development of Russian nuclear business abroad, as well as working to create a worldwide network of ROSATOM marketing offices. Dzhomart Aliev is the Director General of Rusatom Overseas."
- is negotiating since April 2013 with Fennovoima about joining the Pyhäjoki NPP project in Finland
- wants to build a new reactor in the UK (together with EON)
- wants to build a new reactor in Belene (Bulgaria): 49% of the project are owned by RWE
- is owner (RWE Power) of five nuclear power plants in Germany: Biblis-A (1974 - 1,167 MW), Biblis-B (1976 - 1,240 MW), Emsland/Lingen (1988 - 1,329 MW; operator: Kernkraftwerke Lippe-Ems GmbH, owner: 87.5 % RWE Power, 33.3 % E.ON Kernkraft), Gundremmingen-B (1984 - 1,284 MW; operator: Kernkraftwerke Gundremmingen Betriebsgesellschaft mbH, owner: 75 % RWE Power, 25 % E.ON Kernkraft), Gundremmingen-C (1984 - 1,288 MW; operator: Kernkraftwerke Gundremmingen Betriebsgesellschaft mbH, owner: 75 % RWE Power, 25 % E.ON Kernkraft)
RWE Greenwashing Campaign
- the German RWE company started a greenwashing advertising campaign in Germany in 2009 with a short film ("RWE Energy Giant"): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rhMV0e_cFAI , translation:
- It can be so easy to make big changes.
- If you are a giant.
- Move forwards
- critics published a new version ("RWE Energy Giant Lie - The Truth About The Ad") of the film with critical comments: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aTjHASBVA0Y&NR=1 , translation:
- Only 0.1 Percents of RWE's power station's capacities are from wind power stations.
- Tidal power plants has RWE: none. They only exist on their drawing board.
- Many pylons origin from the prewar period. Some years ago some of them broke for age reasons.
- RWE produces every year 170,000,000 tons of Carbon Dioxide. This is 20 % of the German total.
- RWE owns five nuclear power plants. Where are they in this film???
- You've got to be kidding, RWE! You won't cheat us!
- Greenpeace changed the film a bit ("The RWE Energy Giant"), pointing to the nuclear power of RWE: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xZFGYG7acz4 , translation:
- 15 % of Germany's electricity came from renewable energies in 2008.
- Only 2 % was the amount of renewable energies of the electricity production of RWE.
- RWE: really less renewables
- The anti-nuclear campaign "Atomausstieg selber machen" (="make nuclear phase-out yourself") published another version of the short film ("RWE Energy Giant - Director's Cut"): http://www.youtube.com/atomausstieg09?gl=DE&hl=de , translation:
- It's a shame if you don't make ANY big changes
- although you are a giant.
- is stakeholder of Areva
- nuclear operations in: Germany (Headquarter; built NPPs), France (EPR Flamanville via Areva), Finland (EPR Olkiluoto via Areva; Uranium mining via Areva), Canada (Uranium mining via Areva)
- Tokyo Electric Power Company, Incorporated
- it is (was until Fukushima?) the world's no. 4 power company
- operator of the Fukushima I Daiichi NPP (J)
This text is based on corporation information of TVO:
Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO) is a public company established in 1969 producing electricity for its shareholders at cost price. TVO's nuclear power plant produces about one sixth of the electricity used in Finland. Electricity is generated at the two Olkiluoto nuclear power plant units Olkiluoto 1 and Olkiluoto 2 (OL1 and OL2) at Eurajoki and at the Meri-Pori coal-fired power plant in Pori. A new unit, Olkiluoto 3 (OL3), is under construction at Olkiluoto. TVO has filed an application for a decision-in-principle to construct a fourth nuclear power plant unit at Olkiluoto in spring 2008.
The main mission of TVO is to produce electricity for shareholders safely and economically without carbon dioxide emissions. TVO's vision is to be a world-class nuclear power company that is appreciated by Finnish society. Values of the company are responsibility, transparency, pro activity and continuous improvement.
The Olkiluoto nuclear power plant produced ca. 14.5 TWh electricity in 2009. It was about one sixth of all electricity used in Finland.
TVO's generating capacity consists of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant units Olkiluoto 1 and Olkiluoto 2 with an electrical output of 860 MW each and the 257 MW share in the Meri-Pori coal-fired power plant.
|Holding||A series||B series||C series||Total|
|EVP Energia Oy||6.5||6.6||6.5||6.5|
|Fortum Power and Heat Oy||26.6||25.0||26.6||25.9|
|Karhu Voima Oyj||0.1||0.1||0.1||0.1|
|Oy Mankala Ab||8.1||8.1||81.||8.1|
|Pohjolan Voima Oy||56.8||60.2||56.8||58.3|
The A series shares entitle the shareholders to the electricity generated by the current plant units, the B series shares to the electricity by the new plant unit OL3, and the C series shares to the electricity generated by the Meri-Pori coal-fired power plant.
Some historic key points:
- 23.1.1969: Teollisuuden Voima Oy was founded by 16 companies
- 21.12.1972: The Ministry of Trade and Industry gave principle approval for building a nuclear power plant.
- 1973: The Parliament approved TVO's proposal of acquisition of an area at Olkiluoto.
- 31.1.1974: The Ministry of Trade and Industry granted construction license for Olkiluoto 1 (OL1) in accordance with the Atomic Energy Act.
- 1.2.1974: OL1's foundation stone was laid.
- 4.8.1975: The Ministry of Trade and Industry granted construction license for Olkiluoto 2 (OL2) in accordance with the Atomic Energy Act.
- 28.8.1975: Construction of OL2 unit was started.
- 6.7.1978: The Council of State granted an operation licence for OL1.
- 2.9.1978: OL1 was connected to the national grid for the first time. The power plant unit achieved full capacity for the first time in January 8, 1979.
- 1.9.1979: The Council of Stae granted an operation licence for OL2.
- 10.10.1979: OL1 was introduced into commercial operation.
- 18.2.1980: OL2 was connected to the national grid for the first time. The power plant unit achieved full capacity for the first time in November 11, 1980.
- 1.7.1982: OL2 was introduced into commercial operation.
- 17.5.1984: The Council of State granted permission for increased power level for both power plant units.
- 29.9.1987: Spent fuel was transferred for the first time from the plant to the Interim Storage Facility for Spent Fuel (KPA-Store).
- 29.3.1988: Agreement on the participation with a 45 per cent share in the Meri-Pori coal-fired power plant project was signed.
- 15.12.1988: The Council of State granted an operation licence for 10 years for both power plant units.
- 29.9.1989: Total production of Olkiluoto nuclear power plant reached 100 TWh.
- 16.3.1990: Training simulator was taken into use at Olkiluoto.
- 8.5.1992: The first waste transfer to the low and medium-level nuclear waste repository (VLJ) was made.
- 30.12.1992: Olkiluoto, Konginkangas and Kuhmo were chosen for more detailed site investigations for final disposal site for spent nuclear fuel.
- 26.9.1993: Meri-Pori coal-fired power plant produced electricity to the national grid for the first time.
- 1.1.1996: Posiva Oy began its activities.
- 1998: Total production of Olkiluoto nuclear power plant reached 200 TWh.
- 20.8.1998: The Council of State granted a new operation licence for both power plant units and the KPA-Store as well as for the low and medium-level waste interim storages.
- 1998: Modernization programme of the power plant units, which lasted four years, was completed. After the modernization, the power level is 840 MW it is 18.3 per cent higher than the earlier nominal power level.
- 30.8.1999: The environmental impact assessment report, i.e. EIA Report, of the environmental impact of a new nuclear power plant unit, which would possibly be built at Olkiluoto, was submitted to the Ministry of Trade and Industry.
- 5.12.1999: A certificate based on the ISO 14001 standard was granted to the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant.
- 15.11.2000: Application for Decision in principle concerning the new nuclear power plant unit was submitted to the Council of State.
- 21.12.2000: The Council of State gave a positive Decision in principle for Posiva Oy's application for the construction of a final repository of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki.
- 18.5.2001: The Finnish Parliament ratified the Decision in principle made by the Council of State supporting Posiva Oy to construct a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki.
- 19.7.2001: The Finnish Environment Institute registered TVO in the EMAS system (Eco Management and Audit Scheme).
- 24.5.2002: The Finnish Parliament ratified the Decision in principle made 17th January 2002 by the Council of State supporting the construction of a new nuclear power plant unit either in Olkiluoto, Eurajoki or at Hästholmen, Lovisa.
- 30.09.2002: TVO submitted bid inquiries for the construction of a new nuclear power plant unit.
- 16.10.2003: Olkiluoto was chosen for the location site for the new power plant unit.
- 18.12.2003: TVO's Board of Directors decided to invest in the new nuclear power plant unit Olkiluoto 3 (OL3). The Company signed a contract for the construction of a pressurized water reactor plant unit of some 1,600 MW with the consortium comprising AREVA NP GmbH, AREVA NP SAS and Siemens AG.
- 16.2.2004: The excavation work at the OL3 site was started.
- 15.11.2004: TVO's wind power unit at Olkiluoto was consecrated.
- 10.12.2004: The festive tarring of the ground of the OL3 site.
- 11.1.2005: The building permit for OL3 was granted by Eurajoki municipality.
- 17.2.2005: The Council of State granted the construction licence for the OL3.
- 26.4.2005: Total electricity production of OL1 and OL2 reached 200 TWh.
- 12.8.2005: The actual construction work of OL3 began.
- 12.9.2005: The OL3 foundation stone was laid.
- 31.1.2006: Olkiluoto's new Visitor Center was consecrated.
- 1.6.2006: Modernization programme of the Olkiluoto power plant units was completed. After the modernization the nominal power level is 860 MW.
- 18.10.2006: OL3's actual casting of concrete began.
- 31.5.2007: The environmental impact assessment programme (EIA programme) for the fourth nuclear power plant unit to be possibly built at Olkiluoto was submitted to the contact authority, the Ministry of Trade and Industry.
- 19.11.2007: The Olkiluoto 100 MW gas turbine plant jointly constructed by Fingrid Oyi and Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) was inaugurated.
- 31.12.2007: TVO has been registered in the trade register as a public company as of 31 December 2007. The official name of the company is Teollisuuden Voima Oyi.
- 25.4.2008: TVO filed to the Government an application for a decision-in-principal to construct a fourth nuclear power plant unit (OL4) at Olkiluoto. Simultaneously Posiva Oy filed an application-in-principle to expand its for spent fuel for OL4.
- 2.9.2008: The anniversary of 30 years of nuclear energy production at Olkiluoto took place. During the three decades Olkiluoto has produced 350 TWh of electricity.
- May 2009: The Association for Finnish Work awarded the Key Flag, a symbol of Finnish know-how, to electricity generated by TVO.
- 11.11.2009: Olkiluoto 3 site reached rooftop height.
- 2009: The production of electricity of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant in 2009 was the highest in the history of the operational history. The total annual production of the power plant units was 14.5 TWh. The two units produce annually some sixth of the electricity in Finland.
- is owner and operator of several NPPs in Germany: Brokdorf (1986 - 1,410 MW; 80 % EON, 20 % Vattenfall), Brunsbüttel (1976 - 771 MW; owner + operator: Kernkraftwerk Brunsbüttel GmbH & Co. OHG - 33.3 % E.ON Kernkraft, 66.7 % Vattenfall Europe Nuclear Energy GmbH), Krümmel (1983 - 1,346 MW; operator: Kernkraftwerk Krümmel GmbH & Co OHG, owner: 50 % E.ON Kernkraft, 50 % Vattenfall Europe Nuclear Energy GmbH)
- operates uranium enrichment facilities in Gronau (D), Almelo (NL), Capenhurst (GB) and Newmexico (USA)
- details of ownership on Sofa Münster website
- http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Atomic_Energy_of_Canada_Limited&oldid=300351714, September 16, 2009
- http://www.wdr.de/tv/monitor/sendungen/2011/0407/fukushima.php5 as at April 8, 2011
- http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/nov/08/nuclear-power-namibia-mining , November 8, 2009
- source: Banks financing AREVA - data from 2000-2009 www.nuclearbanks.org as at February 5, 2012
- Jean-Yvon Landrac, letter to Ranua munipalicy Council on November 16, 2009
- Olkiluoto 3 should already be in operation since April 2009. The current (November 2009) estimate delay is about 3 years, but if the cooling system is to be redone from start (as defects have been observed), 3 more years would be added to this delay.
(source: Jean-Yvon Landrac, letter to Ranua munipalicy Council on November 16, 2009)
- http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bruce_Power&oldid=311410080, September 16, 2009
- http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cameco&oldid=309777109, September 16, 2009
- http://www.contratom.de/wissen/standorte/standorte/index_station.php?station=112 , 6 November 2009
- http://www.contratom.de/wissen/standorte/standorte/index_station.php?station=113 , 6 November 2009
- http://www.contratom.de/wissen/standorte/standorte/index_station.php?station=101 , 6 November 2009
- http://www.contratom.de/wissen/standorte/standorte/index_station.php?station=102 , 6 November 2009
- http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Energy_Alberta_Corporation&oldid=304616374, September 16, 2009
- http://www.euernonsensistkeinkonsens.de/?page_id=25 as at October 7, 2011
- http://www.contratom.de/wissen/standorte/standorte/index_station.php?station=14 , 6 November 2009
- http://www.contratom.de/wissen/standorte/standorte/index_station.php?station=32 , 6 November 2009
- http://www.contratom.de/wissen/standorte/standorte/index_station.php?station=35 , 6 November 2009
- http://www.contratom.de/wissen/standorte/standorte/index_station.php?station=159 , 6 November 2009
- http://www.contratom.de/wissen/standorte/standorte/index_station.php?station=132 , 6 November 2009
- http://www.contratom.de/wissen/standorte/standorte/index_station.php?station=17 , 6 November 2009
- http://www.contratom.de/wissen/standorte/standorte/index_station.php?station=153 , 6 November 2009
- http://www.contratom.de/wissen/standorte/standorte/index_station.php?station=40 , 6 November 2009
- http://www.contratom.de/wissen/standorte/standorte/index_station.php?station=41 , 6 November 2009
- http://www.contratom.de/wissen/standorte/standorte/index_station.php?station=158 , 6 November 2009
- http://www.contratom.de/wissen/standorte/standorte/index_station.php?station=86 , 6 November 2009
- http://www.handelsblatt.com/unternehmen/industrie/beteiligung-eon-zieht-sich-aus-letztem-akw-projekt-zurueck/7790040.html as at August 9, 2013
- http://www.yle.fi/uutiset/news/2011/10/new_nuclear_reactor_to_be_built_at_pyhajoki_2925634.html as at October 5, 2011
- announced August 29, 2012 to not take part in financing Fennovoima nuclear power plant anymore; see: http://www.voimaosakeyhtio.fi/en/osakkaat.php as at August 9, 2013
- announced March 25, 2013 to not take part in financing Fennovoima nuclear power plant anymore; see: http://www.voimaosakeyhtio.fi/en/osakkaat.php as at August 9, 2013
- http://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pyh%C3%A4joki&oldid=118480285 as at August 8, 2013
- http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fennovoima&oldid=557193416 as at August 8, 2013
- http://www.fennovoima.fi/en/fennovoima/media/press-releases/press-releases/fennovoima-continues-with-rosatom as at August 8, 2013
- see media release as of March 14, 2012: http://www.voimaosakeyhtio.fi/en/tiedotteet.php as at August 9, 2013
- http://www.voimaosakeyhtio.fi/en/osakkaat.php as at August 9, 2013
- provided by an exhibition presented at the international anti-nuclear conference in Vienna on May 31, 2013
- lecture of Tapio Litmanen, University of Jyväskylä: http://www.nuclear-heritage.net/images/7/70/Case_Pyhajoki_presentation_Finnish_Exceptionalism.pdf as at August 8, 2013
- http://www.zwentendorf.com/en/geschichte.asp?index=2 as at January 30, 2014
- https://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kernkraftwerk_Zwentendorf&oldid=126475887 as at January 30, 2014
- http://www.gns.de/language=de/2461/zwischenlagerung as at October 26, 2011
- http://www.gns.de/binary.ashx/5935 as at October 26, 2011
- http://www.gns.de/language=de/2354/castor-behaelter as at October 26, 2011
- http://www.gns.de/language=de/2358/constor-behaelter as at October 26, 2011
- http://www.gns.de/language=de/2363/pollux-behaelter as at October 26, 2011
- http://www.gns.de/language=de/2349/nuklear-behaelter-produkte as at October 26, 2011
- http://www.nuclear-heritage.net/images/7/70/Case_Pyhajoki_presentation_Finnish_Exceptionalism.pdf as at August 8, 2013
- For Rosatom’s own presentation of the BOO model, cf. Yu. A. Sokolov, Multiple approaches on supporting nuclear program development and contracting of NPPs, http://www.iaea.org/NuclearPower/Downloadable/Meetings/2013/2013-02-11-02-14-TM-INIG/11.sokolov.pdf
- In the case of Turkish Akkuyu project, cf. ibid.
- For a complete organisational chart, cf. http://www.rosatom.ru/en/about/nuclear_industry/Industry_structure/
- For the history of Rosatom, cf. http://www.rosatom.ru/en/about/nuclear_industry/history/
- Presentation of Rosatom Director General, http://www.rosatom.ru/en/about/governing_bodies/directorgeneral/
- EU Commission, ERAWATCH article on Rosatom, http://erawatch.jrc.ec.europa.eu/erawatch/opencms/information/country_pages/ru/organisation/organisation_0012
- Supervisory board members, cf. http://www.rosatom.ru/en/about/governing_bodies/supervisoryboard/
- Cf. V. A. Mokhov, Advanced Designs of VVER Reactor Plant, http://www.slideshare.net/myatom/advanced-designs-of-vver-reactor-plant
- Kaleva 29.3.2013: Laaksonen sopi uudesta työstä jo syksyllä, http://www.kaleva.fi/uutiset/kotimaa/laaksonen-sopi-uudesta-tyosta-jo-syksylla/572474/
- On 18th of September 2012, Rosatom announced it has been granted budget support of 1.247 trillion rubles, equaling over 31 billion euro, for the period of 2012-2020, cf. Interfax, Rosatom to receive over 1.2 trln rubles in budget funds in framework of state program by 2020, http://www.interfax.co.uk/russia-energy-news/rosatom-to-receive-over-1-2-trln-rubles-in-budget-funds-in-framework-of-state-program-by-2020-kiriyenko/
- JAN: What is this price estimate based on? Rosatom’s current estimate is 25 billion USD for four reactors meaning 6.25 billion USD each: http://www.invest.gov.tr/en-US/infocenter/news/Pages/akkuyu-nuclear-plant-may-cost-USD-25%20billion.aspx
- Cf. Rosatom, Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant – Progress To-date and the Way Forward, http://www.iaea.org/NuclearPower/Downloadable/Meetings/2013/2013-02-11-02-14-TM-INIG/20.smirnov.pdf
- With 85% capacity factor, the four 1200 MWe nuclear reactors would produce over 35 TWh/a of electricity. Turkey’s 2011 electricity consumption was 188 TWh/a. Cf. ibid.
- Dnevnik 31.12.2009: Russia might slice off bigger stake in Belene to sell on
- Ministry of Economy, Energy and Tourism of Bulgaria, Documents concerning Belene from 2008-2009, http://www.mi.government.bg/bg/theme-news/dokumenti-po-proekta-belene-ot-2009-g-1052-m0-a0-1.html
- Balkan Insight 4.10.2010: Putin to Prod Bulgaria Over Belene Plant, http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/article/putin-to-prod-bulgaria-over-belene-plant
- Bloomberg 16.11.2010: Bulgaria Hires HSBC as Adviser for New Nuclear Plant, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2010-11-16/bulgaria-hires-hsbc-as-consultant-for-belene-nuclear-plant.html
- Original Rosatom estimate was four billion euro for two VVER-1000 reactors. HSBC estimated that in best case scenario, the two reactors would have cost 10.35billion euro. Cf. Novinite 23.4.2012: Bulgaria's Belene NPP Would've Cost EUR 10 B, HSBC Estimates, http://www.novinite.com/view_news.php?id=138758
- Reuters 18.7.2012: Russia, Belarus agree $10 bln nuclear power plant deal, http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/07/18/russia-belarus-nuclear-idUSL6E8IIGW420120718
- New Europe 28.2.2013: Bulgaria drops “Belene” NPP http://www.neurope.eu/article/bulgaria-drops-belene-npp
- New Europe 5.6.2012: Rosatom to build unit 7 of NPP Kozloduy, http://www.neurope.eu/article/rosatom-build-unit-7-npp-kozloduy
- Czech Insider 10.12.2012: Russia's Rosatom willing to buy Temelin nuclear plant, http://aktualne.centrum.cz/czechnews/clanek.phtml?id=765680
- Reuters 23.2.2013: Russia's Rosatom says in talks with Finnish firm on nuclear reactor, http://uk.reuters.com/article/2013/02/23/business-us-fennovoima-rosatom-idUKBRE91M08I20130223
- Reuters 5.6.2012: Russia's Rosatom eyes Hungary nuclear tender, http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/06/05/hungary-nuclear-idUSL5E8H56XS20120605
- The Lithuania Tribune 23.2.2013: Russian energy firm Rosatom inviting Lithuanian PM to meet its CEO, http://www.lithuaniatribune.com/30493/russian-energy-firm-rosatom-inviting-lithuanian-pm-to-meet-its-ceo-201330493/
- The Lithuania Tribune 5.3.2013: Russia’s Rosatom not offering to join Lithuania’s Visaginas NPP project, http://www.lithuaniatribune.com/31152/russias-rosatom-not-offering-to-join-lithuanias-visaginas-npp-project-interview-201331152/
- The Slovak Spectator 17.1.2013: Russian company Rosatom considers building new NPP in Bohunice, http://spectator.sme.sk/articles/view/48773/10/russian_company_rosatom_considers_building_new_npp_in_bohunice.html
- The list is from June 2012 Rosatom presentation by I. A. Karavaev: Strategy of State Atomic Energy Corporation “Rosatom” till 2030, http://2012.atomexpo.ru/mediafiles/u/files/Present2012/Karavaev(1).pdf
- For the project’s presentation, see: http://balticnpp.com/
- For Rosatom’s Baltic grid plans, see http://www.forum-ekonomiczne.pl/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/Rosatom-29-11-2012.pdf
- http://www.rosatom-overseas.com/about.html as at July 7, 2013
- http://www.fennovoima.fi/en/fennovoima/media/press-releases/press-releases/fennovoima-continues-with-rosatom as at July 7, 2013
- http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/NN_Fennovoima_focuses_on_Rosatom_0306131.html as as July 7, 2013
- http://www.contratom.de/wissen/standorte/standorte/index_station.php?station=7 , 6 November 2009
- http://www.contratom.de/wissen/standorte/standorte/index_station.php?station=8 , 6 November 2009
- http://www.contratom.de/wissen/standorte/standorte/index_station.php?station=153 , 6 November 2009
- http://www.contratom.de/wissen/standorte/standorte/index_station.php?station=40 , 6 November 2009
- http://www.contratom.de/wissen/standorte/standorte/index_station.php?station=41 , 6 November 2009
- http://download.www.arte.tv/permanent/u1/tchernobyl/report2011.pdf as at June 1, 2011
- TVO: Pocket Guide 2010; Eura Print Oy, 2010
- This data is in contradiction to the data provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency: according to them, the construction started on 01/11/1975 - http://www.iaea.org/PRIS/CountryStatistics/ReactorDetails.aspx?current=160 as at September 25, 2012
- http://www.contratom.de/wissen/standorte/standorte/index_station.php?station=14 , 6 November 2009
- http://www.contratom.de/wissen/standorte/standorte/index_station.php?station=17 , 6 November 2009
- http://www.contratom.de/wissen/standorte/standorte/index_station.php?station=86 , 6 November 2009